Skincare & Makeup Ingredients - Page 2
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  1. #16
    Beryl juliettehasagun's Avatar
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    Default Re: Skincare & Makeup INGREDIENTS

    Menurut Smartskincare.com, ini adalah bahan-bahan yang sering dipakai dalam produk pemutih. Lumayan untuk jadi patokan dalam memilih produk pemutih.

    Hidden Content

    Treatment of hyperpigmentation problems / skin lightening



    Hyperpigmentation treatments include topical lightening agents, laser / intense pulsed light, cryotherapy and chemical peels. None of the methods is optimal for every individual or for every hyperpigmentation problem. We discuss each of the options below.

    Hydroquinone

    Hydroquinone is one of the best-established topical agents for reducing skin pimgentation, often viewed as the golden standard of skin lightening. Its effectiveness, both alone and in combination with other treatments, has been documented in a large number of clinical studies. It works by inhibiting the enzyme tyrosinase, thus blocking a critical step in the synthesis of melanin (dark skin pigment). Hydroquinone does not bleach skin in the sense that it does not destroy previously synthesized melanin. Hydroquinone treatment usually takes several weeks to produce results because even though the synthesis of new melanin is blocked quickly, the existing melanin takes a relatively long time to migrate out of the skin in the process of natural exfoliation. To speed up the effects, hydroquinone or other melanin synthesis inhibitors are sometimes combined with exfoliating agents, such as alpha-hydroxy acids. However, since both hydroquinone and many exfoliants are potential skin irritants, combining then increases the risk of skin irritation.

    Hydroquinone is available in concentrations of 0.5 - 2% over-the-counter and 4% or even higher by prescription. Side effects of short-term use tend to be mild and non-systemic, especially for low-to-medium strength formulations.

    Unfortunately, animal studies of very high doses indicated the potential of hydroquinone to cause cancer. Also, hydroquinone has been reported to cause ochronosis, a bluish black discoloration of tissue. This complication is relatively rare with short-term use of low-to-medium concentrations. However, prolonged use of high concentration, especially in dark skinned people, appears to cause ochronosis relatively frequently. For example, a South African study reported that up to 69% of long-term users of high strength (6-8%) hydroquinone developed some degree of ochronosis. As a result of these concerns, hydroquinione has been banned or restricted in several countries.

    Clearly, more research is needed to better evaluate the above risks and better define appropriate use of hydroquinone. On one hand, the fact that high-dose long-term hydroquinone may cause cancer in mice does not automatically indicate that humans receiving typical hydroquinone treatments are also at risk. Hydroquinone has been the most used skin lightener for decades. Any marked carcinogenicity would probably have been noticed. On the other hand, a small increase in cancer risk is much easier to overlook, especially in the absence of large scale, long-term studies focusing on the issue.

    Until more safety studies are performed, the use of high strength hydroquinone formulations, especially long-term, may be unwise without compelling indications and close medical supervision. As of the time of this writing, there is no clear evidence of serious risks associated with typical short-term use of low-to-medium strength hydroquinone formulations. Still, it is important to follow further research developments in this area.

    Arbutin

    While some promoters hail arbutin as a completely novel skin-lightening agent, it is actually hydroquinone in disguise. Arbutin is glycosylated hydroquinone (b-D-glucopyranoside derivative of hydroquinone to be exact), i.e. its molecule consists of hydroquinone connected to glucose. It is believed to work by slowly releasing hydroquinone through hydrolysis, which, in turn, suppresses melanin synthesis by inhibiting the enzyme tyrosinase. Arbutin appears to have fewer side effects than hydroquinone at similar concentrations - presumably due to the more gradual release. The range of arbutin concentrations reported in the literature is 3-7%.

    Arbutin clearly has some pigmentation reducing effect. Yet, it remains unclear how well it stacks up against hydroquinone and what the equivalent concentrations (in terms of effectiveness) of these two agents might me. Arbutin appears to be gentler than hydroquinone as far as typical side effects like skin irritation are concerned. However, it is unclear whether the concerns recently raised regarding hydroquinone (risk of ochronosis and possible cancer risk) may apply to arbutin as well.

    Finally, due to patenting issues, many skin care companies use arbutin-containing plant extracts (such as bearberry, blueberry, cranberry and other extract) instead of pure arbutin. Whether such products contain sufficient amount of arbutin is unclear. Even if they do, it is unclear whether arbutin in plant extract is equipotent to standard arbitin. (For example, plant extracts may contain other substances interfering with absorption or activity of arbutin).

    All in all, arbutin appears to be a promising hydroquinone alternative, but many uncertainties remain.


    Kojic acid

    Kojic acid is a naturally occurring substance produced by some species of fungi. Similarly to hydroquinone, it suppresses the production of melanin by inhibiting the enzyme tyrosinase. Kojic acid appears to be comparable in effectiveness to hydroquinone as a skin-lightening agent. However, kojic acid is relatively unstable in skin care formulations. It easily oxidizes on contact with air and also reacts with other chemicals if exposed to sunlight.

    To bypass this problem, some skin care companies use kojic acid dipalmitate, a more stable derivative. It remains unclear whether kojic acid dipalmitate is equivalent or even close to kojic acid in effectiveness. Kojic acid dipalmitate needs to be studied head-to-head against kojic acid and/or hydroquinone.

    Finally, some controversial research has raised the issue of carcinogenicity of kojic acid. A special cancer susceptible strain of mice developed liver tumors when fed large amounts of kojic acid for 26-weeks. The relevance of this finding to topical use in humans, if any, remains unclear.

    Azelaic acid

    Azelaic acid is a naturally occurring chemical belonging to the class of dicarboxylic acids. In skin care, it is most commonly used to treat acne. However, azelaic acid also reduces melanin production by inhibiting (largely indirectly) the enzyme tyrosinase. It also suppresses the proliferation of abnormal melanin producing cells (melanocytes), apparently by reducing the rate of DNA synthesis. Azelaic acid has been used to treat melasma, lentigo maligna and other hyperpigmentation problems. Topical azelaic acid has no or little depigmentation effect on normally pigmented skin, freckles, age spots (solar lentigines), and nevi. Apparently, azelaic acid is much more active against abnormal melanin synthesis and abnormal melanocytes.

    In the US, azelaic acid (20%) is approved as acne treatment but is sometimes used off-label for hyperpigmentation. A 24-week study in South America found that a 20% concentration of azelaic acid was equivalent to 2% hydroquinone in the treatment of melasma. A study in the Philippines found that 20% azelaic acid was superior to 2% hydroquinone. Some individuals who develop irritation on hydroquinone may tolerate azelaic acid. Recent safety concerns regarding hydroquinone, whether substantiated or not, make azelaic acid a more attractive skin lightening alternative for melasma and some other hyperpigmentation disorders. However, as opposed to hydroquinone, azelaic acid is not very effective against freckles and age spots.

    Glabridin (Licorice extract)

    Glabridin, the main compound in the hydrophobic fraction of licorice extract, inhibits melanin production, apparently by inhibiting tyrosinase activity. It has been used as a skin-lightening agent in some parts of the world. It appears to have a good side effect profile. Unfortunately, as of the time of this writing, there are no clinical studies as to how glabridin compares to the more established skin lighteners or what its optimal concentrations may be.

  2. #17
    Beryl juliettehasagun's Avatar
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    Default Re: Skincare & Makeup INGREDIENTS

    terusan....

    Topical retinoids

    Topical retinoids, such are tretinoin 0.05-0.1%, have been used in the treatment of melasma and other hyperpigmentation problems. When used alone, retinoids appear to be considerably less effective than hydroquinone and they may take up to six month or more to achieve visible results. Retinoids seem to reduce hyperpigmentation by accelerating epidermal exfoliation (sloughing off of epidermal cells), which leads to a greater loss of epidermal melanin. It has been suggested that retinoids may also reduce melanin synthesis by indirectly inhibiting tyrosinase, but this is not well supported by evidence. In fact, if retinoids were strong inhibitors of tyrosinase one would expect their lightening effects to be seen in weeks (similarly to hydroquinone) not months.

    In patients who do not sufficiently respond to tyrosinase inhibitors like hydroquinone, adding tretinoin appears to improve effectiveness, possibly because their mechanisms of action are complementary. On the other hand, both retinoids and hydroquinone are potential irritants. Skin irritation, especially if intense and/or prolonged, may actually worsen pigmentation problems by causing to so-called postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Hence the combination of retinoids and hydroquinone should be used with particular caution.

    In some melasma treatment studies, researchers combined a retinoid (e.g. tretinoin or adapalene), hydroquinone and a corticosteroid (e.g. dexamethasone or fluocinolone acetonide). The role of a corticosteroid was to reduce the skin irritation. This triple combination appears to be highly effective as a melasma treatment. However, it should be considered only in refractory cases because corticosteroids may cause skin atrophy.

    Alpha hydroxy acids

    Alpha hydroxy acids used at typical OTC strengths (5-15%) are ineffective as hyperpigmentation treatment. However, exfoliation that AHA produce increases the turnover of epidermal cells causing more melanin to wash out of the skin. As a result, AHA may enhance the effectiveness of other treatments, such as hydroquinone or other tyrosinase inhibitors. High strength AHA peels applied by a physician may be somewhat effective in reducing skin discolorations.

  3. #18
    Citizen deeoz55's Avatar
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    Default Re: Skincare & Makeup INGREDIENTS

    Hidden Content Originally Posted by dunia_dandan Hidden Content
    Bakal bingungnya spt apa, Deeoz?
    Maksud gw, krn ingredients dlm Makeup & Skincare itu beda "lahan".. Dipisah supaya lebih gampang nyari2/tanya2 info kali yah.. Kalo dijadiin satu makeup & skincare, seandainya ada hot topik yg banyak post antara makeup DAN skincare, bisa siwer bacanya..

    Misal, bahan dlm mineral makeup, lip plumpers, mascara, eyelash conditioner, lipbalm bisa masuk k thread makeup. Terus bahan dlm facial skincare, lotions, sunblock, scrubs etc masuk k thread skincare.

    Tapi kalo thread ini membahas ingredients that are potentially harmful, mungkin dijadiin 1 is fine.

  4. #19
    Elite Citizen chaysira's Avatar
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    Default Re: Skincare & Makeup INGREDIENTS

    Waduh! kok gw jd serem yah liat listnya ? kayanya hampir semua bahan ada di kosmetik yang beredar deh... bener ga siy?
    kadang bingung org ga mau dijudge tapi ngejudge... mungkin agak stress.. :p

  5. #20
    NewcomerLegend
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    Default Re: Skincare & Makeup INGREDIENTS

    regarding list di page 1, gue separo setuju separo engga
    ada yang enggak berbahaya kok setau gue...di list itu di list berbahaya

    SLES misalnya, dibilang carsinogenic, ini sih hoax
    canadian authority (bagian food/drug nya) juga pernah rilis statement setau gue, bahwa SLES itu aman digunakan

    masi banyak yang laen, tapi gue ga sempet reply satu2 disini

  6. #21
    Elite Citizen chaysira's Avatar
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    Default Re: Skincare & Makeup INGREDIENTS

    cres... yang paling gw takutin itu mineral oil, lanolin, kaolin ama alumunium... bener ga siy? soalnya gw ud liat2 kynya kosmetik byk yg pake 3 bhn itu... lo tau ga? itu hoax bkn siy? kalo gw cb cari di google, byk yg blg bahaya soalnya, tp ga tau d kalo hoax semua... Hidden Content
    Last edited by chaysira; Jun 25, 2008 at 06:04 PM.
    kadang bingung org ga mau dijudge tapi ngejudge... mungkin agak stress.. :p

  7. #22
    MarketPlaza Certified Seller Superstar feLice's Avatar
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    Default Re: Skincare & Makeup INGREDIENTS

    klo mineral oil emang berpotensi bwat clog pores, tp ada yg bae2 aja meskipun kena mineral oil..
    gw sendiri termasuk salah satu yg bae2 aja.. kulit badak kale ya Hidden Content

  8. #23
    Elite Citizen chaysira's Avatar
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    Default Re: Skincare & Makeup INGREDIENTS

    kayanya sih gt yah fel... Hidden Content
    kadang bingung org ga mau dijudge tapi ngejudge... mungkin agak stress.. :p

  9. #24
    Citizen missajeng's Avatar
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    Default Re: Skincare & Makeup INGREDIENTS

    Teman-teman, di body lotion nyokap gw yg merk sesuatu (lupa) dari Australia, jelas-jelas terpampang "With Lanolin". Setau gue FDA-nya Aussie kan lumayan strict, klo ini bahan berbahaya, masa sih nih produk bisa beredar di sana?

  10. #25
    Fashionese Daily Crew Superstar in Training dunia_dandan's Avatar
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    Default Re: Skincare & Makeup INGREDIENTS

    Ajeng Kayaknya Lanolin gak berbahaya deh. Banyak bgt ingredient Lanolin dimandang2.

    Bahayanya apa?
    We are not human beings having a spiritual experience.
    We are spiritual beings having a human experience.

    Save your PM and ask your beauty Q's on the forum, please. It's called 'forum' for a reason.

  11. #26
    Elite Citizen chaysira's Avatar
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    Default Re: Skincare & Makeup INGREDIENTS

    dundan : itu loh... yang kaya postingannya Vanya di hal 1... di internet byk bgt berita2 ky gt... jd serem... uhm... tp ga tau jg yah apa jgn2 itu cuma semacam promosi buat produk2 natural... kalo di US sana, beritanya gmana toh Bu?

    perasaan hampir semua produk kosmetik/skin care mengandung bhn2 ky gt...
    kadang bingung org ga mau dijudge tapi ngejudge... mungkin agak stress.. :p

  12. #27
    Fashionese Daily Crew Superstar in Training dunia_dandan's Avatar
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    Default Re: Skincare & Makeup INGREDIENTS

    EVERYTHING in the world can cause allergic reaction. Kadang2 aneh2 aja lagi alerginya. Kok ada orang alergi coklat.

    Tapi kan tidak lantas orang dilarang makan coklat, atau makan udang.

    Soal Lanolin, di depan disebutkan bahwa ia diambil dr wool dan reaksi alergisnya adalah merah2 di kulit. Seperti yg sudah kita tahu, banyak memang yg alergi thdp wool. Kulit jadi gatal dan ruam2. Tapi lebih banyak yg tdk alergi terhadap wool dan aman2 aja.

    So that's just my common sense. Kalau alergi ya dihindari, kalau tidak ya diterusin.
    We are not human beings having a spiritual experience.
    We are spiritual beings having a human experience.

    Save your PM and ask your beauty Q's on the forum, please. It's called 'forum' for a reason.

  13. #28
    Elite Citizen chaysira's Avatar
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    Default Re: Skincare & Makeup INGREDIENTS

    iya jg yah... hehehe... thanks pencerahannya y... Hidden Content
    kadang bingung org ga mau dijudge tapi ngejudge... mungkin agak stress.. :p

  14. #29
    NewcomerLegend
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    Default Re: Skincare & Makeup INGREDIENTS

    lanolin bisa menyebabkan allergic reaction, tapi rate nya kecil (sekali), berdasarkan study

    Emollient, very thick substance derived from the sebaceous glands of sheep. Lanolin has long been burdened with a reputation for being an allergen or sensitizing agent, which has always been a disappointment to formulators because lanolin is such an effective moisturizing agent for skin. A study in the British Journal of Dermatology (July 2001, pages 28–31) may change all that. The study concluded “that lanolin sensitization has remained at a relatively low and constant rate even in a high-risk population (i.e., patients with recent or active eczema).” Based on a review of 24,449 patients who were tested with varying forms of lanolin, it turned out that “The mean annual rate of sensitivity to this allergen was 1.7%”—and it was lower than that for a 50% concentration of lanolin. It looks like it’s time to restore lanolin’s good reputation. That’s a very good thing for someone with dry skin, though it can be a problem for someone with oily skin, because lanolin closely resembles the oil from human oil glands.
    di cosmetic formulation kan gak bakal sampe 50% lanolin?
    di gue sih kebetulan oke2 aja tuh lanolin

    mineral oil dari dulu dikenal sebagai pore clogging ingredients which is according to some studies are not true

    Clear, odorless oil derived from petroleum that is widely used in cosmetics because it rarely causes allergic reactions and it cannot become a solid and clog pores. Despite mineral oil’s association with petroleum and the hype that it is bad for skin, keep in mind that petroleum is a natural ingredient derived from the earth and that once it becomes mineral oil USP (cosmetics- and pharmaceutical-grade mineral oil), it has no resemblance to the original petroleum. Cosmetics-grade mineral oil and petrolatum are considered the safest, most nonirritating moisturizing ingredients ever found (Sources: Cosmetics & Toiletries, January 2001, page 79; and Cosmetic Dermatology, September 2000, pages 44–46). Yes, they can keep air off the skin to some extent, but that’s what a good antioxidant is supposed to do; they don’t suffocate skin! Moreover, mineral oil and petrolatum are known to be efficacious in wound healing, and are also among the most effective moisturizing ingredients available (Source: Cosmetics & Toiletries, February 1998, pages 33–40).
    gue jadi curiga, yang ngomong pori2nya kesumbat gara2 mineral oil, itu jangan2 karena mineral oil nya overly moisturizing for their skin type
    jadi bukan direct cause gitu

    anyway kalo emang kulitnya oily n dianggap sensitif ama mineral oil ya dihindari aja
    gue misalnya, kulitnya gak suka ama SLES walopun itu itungannya mild dan non-irritating n wildly used
    ya udah gue hindari aja

    soal aluminium, aluminium apaan nih?

    sources: Hidden Content
    Last edited by Crescent Shadow; Jun 26, 2008 at 10:27 AM.

  15. #30
    Elite Citizen chaysira's Avatar
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    Default Re: Skincare & Makeup INGREDIENTS

    maksud gw alumunium ntu aluminium starch octenylsuccinate... kynya ud bbrp kali liat bhn ky gt di kosmetik...
    kadang bingung org ga mau dijudge tapi ngejudge... mungkin agak stress.. :p

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